Carpenter went 22 for 27 on field-goal tries this season. He first appeared on the injury report Thursday, when he was limited in practice.
The Dolphins (6-8) were relatively healthy for much of the season, but they've placed three players on injured reserve this week and could be without both starting wide receivers Sunday against Buffalo.
Receiver Davone Bess (back) and linebacker Koa Misi (ankle) were ruled out. Among those listed as questionable were receiver Brian Hartline (back), cornerback Nolan Carroll (knee) and defensive tackle Randy Starks, who has missed practice this week because of a personal matter.
Hartline and Carroll practiced Friday on a limited basis. Despite the recent injuries, coach Joe Philbin said he's not feeling snake bit.
"Not at all," he said. "It's a demanding game and unfortunately guys get injured in this game. That's just the landscape of the profession."
Kaeding is the most accurate field-goal kicker in NFL history at 87 per cent (180 of 207), and he made the Pro Bowl in 2006 and 2009. He had been a free agent since he was released from injured reserve by the San Diego Chargers on Oct. 30.
Kaeding made all seven field-goal tries in three games with the Chargers this year before being sidelined by a groin injury.
"He has demonstrated a record of success as a kicker in this league," Philbin said. "He's a hard worker. He's a true professional, and I'm sure he'll do a great job for us."